tool die design metal stamping


 

Tool & Die Making
Articles
Bend Radius
Deep Drawn
Fine Blanking
Formular
Progression strip layout

Slug pulling prevention
Tool die Design
Tool die design book
Technical Book Store


Jig and Fixture
Jigs and Fixture Design


Materials treatment
Annealing metal
Case hardening
Density
Electrical Conductivity
heat treatment process
heat treating steel

Thermal Expansion


Material
Aluminum
Alu comparison table
Aluminum Tempering
Carbon Steel
Copper alloy
Low alloys
Material nations & Equivalents
Nickel alloys

Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel comparison table
Tool Steel equivalent
Tungsten Carbide
Wrought stainless Steel


Manufacturing
Conversion Charts
Drill Angle
Drill size
Energy Efficiency
Math Area
Machining Cutting Time
Technical articles
Work Done
Velocity


Geometric Tolerancing
GDT
Tolerance chart ISO
Surface Roughness
Surface Texture


Quality Control
AQL
Process Capability CPK
Sampling plan
Level I, II, III


Engineering Plastic
Machining of plastic
Selection of plastic


 

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 

 
Material
10-6 in./in.*/°F
10-5 in./in.*/°C
High
Low
High
Low
Zinc & its Alloys 19.3 10.8 3.5 1.9
Lead & its Alloys 16.3 14.4 2.9 2.6
Magnesium Alloys 16 14 2.8 2.5
Aluminum & its Alloys 13.7 11.7 2.5 2.1
Tin & its Alloys 13 2.3
Tin & Aluminum Brasses 11.8 10.3 2.1 1.8
Plain & Leaded Brasses 11.6 10 2.1 1.8
Silver 10.9 2.0
Cr-Ni-Fe Superalloys 10.5 9.2 1.9 1.7
Heat Resistant Alloys (cast) 10.5 6.4 1.9 1.1
Nodular or Ductile Irons (cast) 10.4 6.6 1.9 1.2
Stainless Steels (cast) 10.4 6.4 1.9 1.1
Tin Bronzes (cast) 10.3 10 1.8 1.8
Austenitic Stainless Steels 10.2 9 1.8 1.6
Phosphor Silicon Bronzes 10.2 9.6 1.8 1.7
Coppers 9.8 7.7 1.8 1.4
Nickel-Base Superalloys 9.8 1.8
Aluminum Bronzes (cast) 9.5 9 1.8 1.6
Cobalt-Base Superalloys 9.4 6.8 1.7 1.2
Beryllium Copper 9.3 1.7
Cupro-Nickels & Nickel Silvers 9.5 9 1.7 1.6
Nickel & its Alloys 9.2 6.8 1.7 1.2
Cr-Ni-Co-Fe Superalloys 9.1 8 1.6 1.4
Alloy Steels 8.6 6.3 1.5 1.1
Carbon Free-Cutting Steels 8.4 8.1 1.5 1.5
Alloy Steels (cast) 8.3 8 1.5 1.4
Age Hardenable Stainless Steels 8.2 5.5 1.5 1.0
Gold 7.9 1.4
High Temperature Steels 7.9 6.3 1.4 1.1
Ultra High Strength Steels 7.6 5.7 1.4 1.0
Malleable Irons 7.5 5.9 1.3 1.1
Titanium Carbide Cermet 7.5 4.3 1.3 .8
Wrought Irons 7.4 1.3
Titanium & its Alloys 7.1 4.9 1.3 .9
Cobalt 6.8 1.2
Martensitic Stainless Steels 6.5 5.5 1.2 1.0
Nitriding Steels 6.5 1.2
Palladium 6.5 1.2
Beryllium 6.4 1.1
Chromium Carbide Cermet 6.3 5.8 1.1 1.0
Thorium 6.2 1.1
Ferritic Stainless Steels 6 5.8 1.1 1.0
Gray Irons (cast) 6 1.1
Beryllium Carbide 5.8 1.0
Low Expansion Nickel Alloys’ 5.5 1.5 1.0 .3
Beryllia &, Thoria 5.3 .9
Alumina Cermets 5.2 4.7 .9 .8
Molybdenum Disilicide 5.1 .9
Ruthenium 5.1 .9
Platinum 4.9 .9
Vanadium 4.8 .9
Rhodium 4.6 .8
Tantalum Carbide 4.6 .8
Boron Nitride 4.3 .8
Columbium & its Alloys 4.1 3.8 .7 .68
Titanium Carbide 4.1 .7
Steatite 4 3.3 .7 .6
Tungsten Carbide Cermet 3.9 2.5 .7 .4
Iridium 3.8 .7
Alumina Ceramics 3.7 3.1 .7 .6
Zirconium Carbide 3.7 .7
Osmium and Tantalum 3.6 .6
Zirconium & its Alloys 3.6 3.1 .6 .55
Hafnium 3.4 .6
Zirconia 3.1 .6
Molybdenum & its Alloys 3.1 2.7 .6 .5
Silicon Carbide 2.4 2.2 .4 .39
Tungsten 2.2 .4
Electrical Ceramics 2 .4
Zircon 1.8 1.3 .3 .2
Boron Carbide 1.7 .3
Carbon and Graphite 1.5 1.3 .3 .2