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Fundamental Tool & Die Making techniques

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Aluminum temper designation

Aluminum is usually named in 4 numerical digits and follows by a temper designation. For example, 5052-H32. 5052= Aluminum/magnesium alloy, H3 = strain hardened and stabilized by low temperature heating. The last digit after the second representing the hardness on the Aluminum. In this case 2 = 1/4 hard.Aluminum/magnesium alloy


H Strain hardened (cold worked) with or without thermal treatment.
H1 Strain hardened without thermal treatment.
H2 Strain hardened and partially annealed.
H3 Strain hardened and stabilized by low temperature heating.
Last digit A last digit represent hardness.
Hx2 = 1/4 hard.
Hx4 = 1/2 hard.
Hx6 = 3/4 hard.
Hx8 = full hard.
O Full Soft (annealed).
T1 Heat treated to produce stable tempers.
T2 Partially solution heat treated and naturally aged.
T3 Solution heat treated and cold worked.
T4 Solution heat treated and naturally aged.
T5 Partially solution heat treated and artificially aged.
T51 Stress relieved by stretching.
T510 No further straightening after stretching.
T511 Minor straightening after stretching.
T52 Stress relieved by thermal treatment.
T6 Solution heat treated and artificially aged.
T7 Solution heat treated and stabilized.
T8 Solution heat treated, cold worked, and artificially aged.
T9 Solution heat treated, artificially aged, and cold worked.



Materials & Tretment

Annealing metal
Case hardening
Material density
Electrical Conductivity
heat treating steel


Equivalent and standards

Comparision table

Alu comparison table
Carbide equivalent chart
Carbon Steel
Copper alloy
Low alloys
Nickel alloys
Stainless Steel
Steel comparison table
Tool Steel equivalent
Tungsten Carbide
Wrought stainless Steel
Inch - metri Conversion Charts
Periodic Table of elements


Drill Angle
Drill size


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