tool die design metal stamping


 

Tool & Die Making
Articles
Bend Radius
Deep Drawn
Fine Blanking
Formular
Progression strip layout

Slug pulling prevention
Tool die Design
Tool die design book
Technical Book Store


Jig and Fixture
Jigs and Fixture Design


Materials treatment
Annealing metal
Case hardening
Density
Electrical Conductivity
heat treatment process
heat treating steel

Thermal Expansion


Material
Aluminum
Alu comparison table
Aluminum Tempering
Carbon Steel
Copper alloy
Low alloys
Material nations & Equivalents
Nickel alloys

Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel comparison table
Tool Steel equivalent
Tungsten Carbide
Wrought stainless Steel


Manufacturing
Conversion Charts
Drill Angle
Drill size
Energy Efficiency
Math Area
Machining Cutting Time
Technical articles
Work Done
Velocity


Geometric Tolerancing
GDT
Tolerance chart ISO
Surface Roughness
Surface Texture


Quality Control
AQL
Process Capability CPK
Sampling plan
Level I, II, III


Engineering Plastic
Machining of plastic
Selection of plastic


 

Surface roughness and finished

By definition, surface finish is the allowable deviation from a perfectly flat surface that is made by some manufacturing process. All machining processes will produces some roughness on the surface. This roughness can be caused by a cutting tool, cutting rate and environmental conditions and the type of material you are working with.

Surface finish is generally broken up into three components such as roughness, waviness, and form.

Roughness is generally the machined marks made on a surface by the cutting tool.
Waviness is the result of the vibration of the tool.
Form surface irregularities caused by worn off machine bad, table etc.

All three surface finish components exist simultaneously. They simply overlap one another. We often look at each (roughness, waviness, and form) separately, so we make the assumption that roughness has a shorter wavelength than waviness, which in turn has a shorter wavelength than form.

  surface roughness

Surface roughness
 
  Ra = The average variation from mean line.
Rt = Distance from the highest peak to the deepest valley.
Rz = The average Rt over a given length.
Rz=(Rp1+Rp2+Rp3)+(Rv1+Rv2+Rv3) / 3
Rp = The highest peak above the mean line.
Rv = The deepest valley below the mean line.
 
 
 
 
Surface finish
Ground, Honed Roller, Burnished
Turned, Boreed, Drilled
Rough Machined
N Grade
N1
N2
N3
N4
N5
N6
N7
N8
N9
N10
N11
N12
Micro Meter
0.025
0.050
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.8
1,6
3,2
6.3
12,5
25
50
Micro Inch Ra
1
2
4
8
16
32
63
125
250
500
1000
2000
Rt
8.7
17.4
34.8
69.6
139
278
548
1,088
2,175
4,350
8,700
17,400
Rz
7.0
14.0
28.0
56.0
112
224
441
875
1,750
3,500
7,000
14,000
Rz ( ISO)
7.6
15.2
30.4
60.8
122
243
479
950
1,900
3,800
7,600
15,200
Ry / Rmax
8.0
16.0
32.0
64.0
128
256
504
1,000
2,000
4,000
8,000
16,000
Honing  
Honing
 
Skive and Roller Burnishing  
Skive and Roller Burnishing
 
Skiving Only  
Skiving Only
 
Boring, Drilling, Trepanning  
Boring, Drilling, Trepanning
 
Super Finishing Grinding
Super Finishing Grinding
 
Grinding  
Grinding
 
Turning  
Turning
 
Flame Cutting  
Flame Cutting

  ;

Surface Texture and its symbol